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With the recent advent of GPUs and increased computational power, machine learning and neural networks have risen from the grave and are now one of the forefront technologies in tackling anything a human would normally do. One of the biggest areas of research for this approach has been in understanding the nuances of language. Computers have traditionally struggled to learn languages due to thousands of rules and even more exceptions to each rule. Simple logic approaches fail to take into account context and interpretation and are rarely able to accurately interpret sentences and paragraphs.
In the past decade, researchers have begun applying recurrent neural networks to understand text. Neural networks are combinations of artificial neurons modeled off of the human brain. These networks can change the strength of connections in between the neurons based on training data given to them. For example, if a neural network receives pictures of apples and oranges along with labels for each picture, over time it can tune these connections and learn to distinguish the two objects.